I have finished a vixra paper (27pp),

**Title**: Hexark and Preon Model #6: the Building Blocks of Elementary Particles. Electric Charge is Determined by Hexatone and Gives a Common Link Between QED and QCD.

and it is now loaded onto the vixra website at: http://vixra.org/abs/1505.0076

**Abstract**: The paper shows a model for building elementary particles, including the higgs, dark matter and neutral vacuum particles, from preons and sub-preons. The preons are built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. Elementary particles are unravelled and then reformed when preons disaggregate and reaggregate at particle interactions. Hexark colours are separately described by hue (hexacolour) and tone (hexatone). Hexacolour completely determines particle colour charge and hexatone completely determines particle electric charge. Hexacolour branes within the electron intertwine to form a continuously rotating triple helix structure. A higgs-like particle is implicated in fermions radiating bosons.

**Warning**: Model#6 supersedes models #5 and earlier, and any of my write ups before May 2015 contain errors in the eigenvalues for weak isospin in the up quark and neutrino. The W and Higgs have more forms in Model#6 than previously and my gluon model structure now conforms more closely to the standard model.

**Amendments to Model#6 from earlier models**:

My error prior to Model#6 was to assume the following incorrect eigenstates for the up quark and the neutrino:

where () = (electric charge, spin, weak isospin)

LH up = (2/3, -0.5, -0.5)

LH ν = (0, -0.5, -0.5)

whereas they should be:

LH up (2/3, -0.5, +0.5)

LH ν (0, -0.5, +0.5)

But I have now corrected this in the new Model#6. It required a fourth preon, preon D, with properties (-0.5, 0, +0.5) in order to be able to build the ν and up quark using only four preons to conform with the pattern for the first generation elementary particles.

There were two other structural effects: the higgs (0,0,-0.5) can now be built in two different ways: ABC’C’ X6 as before but also as D’C X7 (where Xn is n neutral pairs of preon + antipreon).

Also, there must be two different forms of W- : (-1,-1,-1) and (-1,+1,-1). This is because to send an LH up (2/3, -0.5, 0.5) to a RH down (-1/3, 0.5,0) requires an addition of (-1, +1, -0.5) while to send a RH up (2/3,0.5, 0) to a LH down (-1/3, -0.5, -0.5) requires an addition of (-1,-1,-0.5). That requires the two forms of W-. And the extra 0.5 weak isospin that is needed comes from a 1/4 higgs which complies with many interactions in my preon model which require the 1/4 higgs or 1/2 higgs or higgs as a participant.

I have also introduced a new term which correlates exactly with electric charge: hypertone. If the hypercolour of the preon is relabelled as white (=-1) for coloured preons and black (=1) for anticolour preons then blackness and whiteness represent tonal values for the preons. Aggregating the tonal values across preons in an elementary particle gives an exact match for electric charge in my model.

If you are drawing/painting you need to take into account both hue (colour) and tone (lightness to darkness). Quarks and gluons already have the hue analogy (red, green, blue) incorporated as QCD, but a red up quark has + electric charge and a red down quark has – electric charge. So there is no relationship between colour and electric charge for quarks. At the more fundamental level of preons, the red preon is always -ve electric charge while the antired preon has always +ve electric charge. So the electric charge can be considered as preon tone with colour being lightness of tone and anticolour being darkness. So the preons have both hue and tone and the hue determines QCD (colour charge) while the tone determines QED (electric charge).