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Online dice game to generate elementary particles in Preon Model 5
Online dice game to generate elementary particles in Preon Model 5
GAME NO LONGER WORKS BECAUSE THE EXCEL FILE TYPE IS NOT ALLOWED ON WORDPRESS.
Attached is an Excel 2007 (.xlsm) file which uses Virtual Basic software
to allow virtual dice to be rolled. Different combinations of rolled dice
generate different elementary particles, according to my Preon Model 5.
Dice game for Model 5 elementary particles
Just download the file and click on appropriate buttons to roll the dice.
4 big dice give electrons, photons and neutrinos.
8 big dice give the Z and W.
12 big dice give the muon and muon neutrino.
16 big dice give the higgs and gluon.
20 big dice give the tauon and tauon neutrino.
3 small dice and three big dice give the up and down quarks
3 small dice and eleven big dice give the charm and strange quarks
3 small dice and nineteen big dice give the top and bottom quarks.
Have fun!
Ben6993
Manchester
England
1 January 2014
(Revised and renamed 14 January 2014)
(Revised 27 January 2014)
Posted in physics
Tagged ben6993, boson, bottom, charm, colour, dark matter, down, fermion, gluon, higgs, quarks, rishon, scalar particle, sterile neutrinos, strange, top, up, weak isospin
3 Comments
Preon Model 5: the building blocks of elementary particles
Preon Model 5: the building blocks of elementary particles
Introduction
In this paper, 48 types of preon are listed. Preons of various types are arranged in six autonomous blocks or neutralcolour units with 24 preons per unit in Units A, B, C, A’, B’ and C’. Two of the neutralcolour units (C and C’) can each be divided into three singlecolour subunits with eight preons per subunit (Cr, Cg, Cb, C’r’, C’g’ and C’b’). Elementary particles are formed when multiples of four units combine, ranging from the lefthanded electron (four units: AAA’C) to a righthanded top quark (nineteen units plus three subunits, for example: A’C’g’CrC’b’AA’BB’CC’AA’BB’CC’AA’BB’CC’).
The 48 Preons
The first property of a preon is electrical charge, either + or – charge. This can be associated with a chiral structure for the preon. Say the negative charge is connected to a lefthanded preon, L. The righthanded preon, R, will have a positive charge. There are also three colour charges (red [r], green [g] and blue [b]) and three anticolour charges (antired [r’], antigreen [g’] and antiblue [b’]). Colour charges are connected to the L preon while anticolour charges are connected to the R preon. Every preon has either spin + or spin – and has weak isospin + or . The 24 matter preons can have 24 antimatter preons (denoted L’ and R’) making 48 different preons in total.
Preons can be labelled as : Preon (electric charge) ( spin) (weak isospin) (colour charge) e.g. R ’ – + – r.
The 48 preons are:
24 preons
L – r  L–+r  L+r  L++r  
L – g  L–+g  L+g  L++g  
L – b  L–+b  L+b  L++b  
R+–r’  R++r’  R++r’  R+++r’  
R+–g’  R++g’  R++g’  R+++g’  
R+–b’  R++b’  R++b’  R+++b’ 
24 antipreons
L’+–r’  L’++r’  L’++r’  L’+++r’  
L’+–g’  L’++g’  L’++g’  L’+++g’  
L’+–b’  L’++b’  L’++b’  L’+++b’  
R’ – r  R’–+r  R’+r  R’++r  
R’ – g  R’–+g  R’+g  R’++g  
R’ – b  R’–+b  R’+b  R’++b 
(A preon’s electric charge is + or – 1/48; A preon’s spin is + or – 1/48; A preon’s weak isospin is + or – 1/48.)
The six neutralcolour units: A, B, C , A’, B’ and C’
Preon Unit A : 24 preons with equal numbers of types L – a, L – g, L – b, R’ – r, R’ – g and R’ – b.
Total electric charge 1/2; total spin 1/2; and total weak isospin 1/2
L – r  L – r  L – r  L – r  
L – g  L – g  L – g  L – g  
L – b  L – b  L – b  L – b  
R’ – r  R’ – r  R’ – r  R’ – r  
R’ – g  R’ – g  R’ – g  R’ – g  
R’ – b  R’ – b  R’ – b  R’ – b 
Preon Unit B : 48 preons with equal numbers of types L+a, L+g, L+b, R’+r, R’+g, R’+b and
L++a, L++g, L++b, R’++r, R’++g, R’++b
Total electric charge 1/2; total spin +1/2; and total weak isospin is zero
L+r  L++r  L+r  L++r  
L+g  L++g  L+g  L++g  
L+b  L++b  L+b  L++b  
R’+r  R’++r  R’+r  R’++r  
R’+g  R’++g  R’+g  R’++g  
R’+b  R’++b  R’+b  R’++b 
Preon Unit C : 48 preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons
Total electric charge 1/2; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L – r  L–+r  L+r  L++r  
L – g  L–+g  L+g  L++g  
L – b  L–+b  L+b  L++b  
R’ – r  R’–+r  R’+r  R’++r  
R’ – g  R’–+g  R’+g  R’++g  
R’ – b  R’–+b  R’+b  R’++b 
Preon Unit A’ : 48 preons with equal numbers of types L’+++r’, L’+++g’, L’+++b’, L’+++r’, L’+++g’, L’+++b’ .
Total electric charge +1/2; total spin +1/2; and total weak isospin +1/2
L’+++r’  L’+++r’  L’+++r’  L’+++r’  
L’+++g’  L’+++g’  L’+++g’  L’+++g’  
L’+++b’  L’+++b’  L’+++b’  L’+++b’  
R+++r’  R+++r’  R+++r’  R+++r’  
R+++g’  R+++g’  R+++g’  R+++g’  
R+++b’  R+++b’  R+++b’  R+++b’ 
Preon Unit B’ : 48 preons with equal numbers of types L’+–r’, L’+–g’, L’+–b’, R+–r’, R+–g’, R+–b’ and
L’++r’, L’++g’, L’++b’, R++r’, R++g’, R++b’
Total electric charge +1/2; total spin 1/2; and total weak isospin is zero
L’+–r’  L’++r’  L’+–r’  L’++r’  
L’+–g’  L’++g’  L’+–g’  L’++g’  
L’+–b’  L’++b’  L’+–b’  L’++b’  
R+–r’  R++r’  R+–r’  R++r’  
R+–g’  R++g’  R+–g’  R++g’  
R+–b’  R++b’  R+–b’  R++b’ 
Preon Unit C’ : 48 preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons
Total electric charge +1/2; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L’+–r’  L’++r’  L’++r’  L’+++r’  
L’+–g’  L’++g’  L’++g’  L’+++g’  
L’+–b’  L’++b’  L’++b’  L’+++b’  
R+–r’  R++r’  R++r’  R+++r’  
R+–g’  R++g’  R++g’  R+++g’  
R+–b’  R++b’  R++b’  R+++b’ 
The six colour subunits: Cr, Cg, Cb, C’r’, C’g’ and C’b’
Preon Unit Cr : 16 red preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons
Total electric charge 1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L – r  L–+r  L+r  L++r  
R’ – r  R’–+r  R’+r  R’++r 
Preon Unit Cg : 16 green preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons
Total electric charge 1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L – g  L–+g  L+g  L++g  
R’ – g  R’–+g  R’+g  R’++g 
Preon Unit Cb : 16 blue preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons
Total electric charge 1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L – b  L–+b  L+b  L++b  
R’ – b  R’–+b  R’+b  R’++b 
Preon Unit C’r’ : 16 antired preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons
Total electric charge +1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L’+–r’  L’++r’  L’++r’  L’+++r’  
R+–r’  R++r’  R++r’  R+++r’ 
Preon Unit C’g’ : 16 antigreen preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons
Total electric charge +1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L’+–g’  L’++g’  L’++g’  L’+++g’  
R+–g’  R++g’  R++g’  R+++g’ 
Preon Unit C’b’ : 16 antiblue preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons
Total electric charge +1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero
L’+–b’  L’++b’  L’++b’  L’+++b’  
R+–b’  R++b’  R++b’  R+++b’ 
Summary of preon unit and subunit properties
Unit/subunit  Number of preons  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  Colour 
A  24  1/2  1/2  1/2  neutral 
B  24  1/2  +1/2  0  neutral 
C  24  1/2  0  0  neutral 
A’  24  +1/2  +1/2  +1/2  neutral 
B’  24  +1/2  1/2  0  neutral 
C’  24  +1/2  0  0  neutral 
Cr  8  1/6  0  0  red 
Cg  8  1/6  0  0  green 
Cb  8  1/6  0  0  blue 
C’r’  8  +1/6  0  0  antired 
C’g’  8  +1/6  0  0  antigreen 
C’b’  8  +1/6  0  0  antiblue 
Unit properties of electric charge, spin and weak isospin are simple sums of the values of those properties of the preons in those units . Every unit and subunit contains an equal number of matter and antimatter preons.
Calculating particle colour from preon subunit colour
Firstpreon color subunit  Secondpreon color subunit  Thirdpreon color subunit  Particle colour  
r  g  b  neutral  
r  g  b’  antiblue  
r  g’  b  antigreen  
r  g’  b’  red  
r’  g  b  antired  
r’  g  b’  green  
r’  g’  b  blue  
r’  g’  b’  neutral 
Index of tables of particles
Particles are made from combinations of :
four preon units (electron, photon, neutrino)  
eight preon units (Z, W)  
twelve preon units (muon, muon neutrino)  
sixteen preon units (Higgs, gluon)  
twenty preon units (tauon, tauon neutrino)  
32 preon units (2Higgs, gluon)  
three colour subunits plus three unit (up, down)  
three colour subunits plus eleven units (charm, strange)  
three colour subunits plus nineteen units (top,bottom) 
Two preon units
Combinations of only two units, in Model 5, are not elementary particles but show the essential constuents which give the required charge, spin and weak isospin properties of electrons, neutrinos and W particles. The scalar combinations are important to the model as they form neutral building blocks to add to the twounit combinations to generate 4unit or more particles.
21 combinations of two units:
Preon units  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  Combination type  
AC  1  0.5  0.5  l.h. electron  
BC  1  0.5  0  r.h. electron  
AC’  0  0.5  0.5  l.h. antineutrino  
B’C  0  0.5  0  l.h. sterile neutrino  
A’C  0  0.5  0.5  r.h neutrino  
BC’  0  0.5  0  sterile antineutrino  
AA  1  1  1  W  
A’A’  1  1  1  W+  
B’C’  1  0.5  0  l.h. positron  
A’C’  1  0.5  0.5  r.h. positron  
nonstandard model:  
AB  1  0  0.5  quasielectron?  
A’B’  1  0  0.5  quasipositron?  
B’B’  1  1  0  l.h. W+ ?  
BB  1  1  0  r.h. W ?  
AA’  0  0  0  scalar particle  
BB’  0  0  0  scalar particle  
CC’  0  0  0  scalar particle  
CC  1  0  0  spinless electron  
C’C’  1  0  0  spinless positron  
AB’  0  1  0.5  quasiphoton?  
A’B  0  1  0.5  quasiphoton? 
Four preon units (electron, photon, neutrino)
The fourunit combinations are the smallest combinations for the photon and higgs particles and the fourunit block is taken here as the smallest form of any elementary particle. For example a lefthanded electron could be ACAA’ or ACBB’ or ACCC’.
Preon units  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  Particle name 
ACx^{1}  1  0.5  0.5  l.h. electron 
BCx^{1}  1  0.5  0  r.h. electron 
A’C’x^{1}  1  0.5  0.5  r.h. positron 
B’C’x^{1}  1  0.5  0.5  l.h. positron 
AC’x^{1}  0  0.5  0.5  l.h. antineutrino 
BC’x^{1}  0  0.5  0  r.h.sterile antineutrino 
A’Cx^{1}  0  0.5  0.5  r.h. neutrino 
B’Cx^{1}  0  0.5  0  l.h. sterile neutrino 
B’B’CC  0  1  0  photon 
BBC’C’  0  1  0  photon 
nonstandard model:  
x^{2}  0  0  0  scalar particle or axion 
ABC’C’  0  0  0.5  Higgslike particle 
A’B’CC  0  0  +0.5  Higgslike particle 
where x^{1}=any one of three pairs: AA’ or BB’or CC’
where x^{2}= any two pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’, e.g. AA’AA’ or AA’BB’ or BB’CC’
Hence there are 3 forms reperented by an x^{1}, 9 forms represented by an x^{2} , and 3^{n} forms represented by x^{n}.
The higher generations of particles which follow use the above basic forms plus the addition of scalar pairs of preon units. Quarks are dealt with later in the paper.
Eight preon units (Z, W)
Preon units  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  Particle name 
AAx^{3}  1  1  1  l.h. W 
A’A’x^{3}  1  1  1  r.h. W+ 
B’B’CCx^{2}  0  1  0  Z 
BBC’C’x^{2}  0  1  0  Z 
nonstandard model:  
x^{4}  0  0  0  scalar particle or axion 
ABC’C’x^{2}  0  0  0.5  Higgslike particle 
A’B’CCx^{2}  0  0  0.5  Higgslike particle 
where x^{2}= any two pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’, e.g. AA’AA’ or AA’BB’ or BB’CC’
where x^{3}= any three pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’, e.g. AA’AA’BB’ or AA’BB’CC’
where x^{4}= any four pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’, e.g. AA’AA’BB’CC’
Twelve preon units (muon, muon neutrino)
Preon units  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  Particle name 
ACx^{5}  1  0.5  0.5  l.h. muon 
BCx^{5}  1  0.5  0  r.h. muon 
AC’x^{5}  0  0.5  0.5  l.h. muon antineutrino 
B’Cx^{5}  0  0.5  0  l.h. muon neutrino 
BC’x^{5}  0  0.5  0  r.h. muon antineutrino 
A’Cx^{5}  0  0.5  0.5  r.h. muon neutrino 
B’C’x^{5}  1  0.5  0  l.h. muon+ 
A’C’x^{5}  1  0.5  0.5  r.h. muon+ 
nonstandard model:  
x^{6}  0  0  0  scalar particle or axion 
ABC’C’ x^{4}  0  0  0.5  Higgslike particle 
A’B’CC x^{4}  0  0  +0.5  Higgslike particle 
where x^{n}= any n pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’
Sixteen preon units (gluon, Higgs)
Preon units  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  Particle name 
B’B’CCx^{6}  0  1  0  gluon 
BBC’C’x^{6}  0  1  0  gluon 
ABC’C’x^{6}  0  0  0.5  Higgs 
A’B’CCx^{6}  0  0  0.5  Higgs 
x^{8}  0  0  0  scalar particle or axion 
where x^{6 }= any six pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’, e.g. AA’AA’BB’BB’BB’CC’
where x^{8 }= any four pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’, e.g. AA’AA’AA’BB’BB’CC’CC’CC’
Twenty preon units (tauon and tauon neutrino)
Preon units  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  Particle name 
ACx^{9}  1  0.5  0.5  l.h. tauon 
BCx^{9}  1  0.5  0  r.h. tauon 
B’Cx^{9}  0  0.5  0  l.h. tauon neutrino 
BC’x^{9}  0  0.5  0  r.h. tauon antineutrino 
A’Cx^{9}  0  0.5  0.5  r.h. tauon neutrino 
AC’x^{9}  0  0.5  0.5  l.h. tauon antineutrino 
B’C’x^{9}  1  0.5  0  l.h. tauon+ 
A’C’x^{9}  1  0.5  0.5  r.h. tauon+ 
nonstandard model:  
x^{10}  0  0  0  scalar particle or axion 
ABC’C’ x^{8}  0  0  0.5  Higgslike particle 
A’B’CC x^{8}  0  0  +0.5  Higgslike particle 
where x^{n}= any n pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’
Three colour subunits plus three units (up quark, down quark)
Preon unit andsubunits  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  ParticleColour  Particle name 
ACgCbC’r’X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0.5  r’  LH antiup 
AC’g’CbCrX^{1}  0.7  0.5  0.5  g’  LH antiup 
ACgC’b’CrX^{1}  0.7  0.5  0.5  b’  LH antiup 
BCgCbC’r’ X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0  r’  RH antiup 
B C’g’CbCrX^{1}  0.7  0.5  0  g’  RH antiup 
B CgC’b’CrX^{1}  0.7  0.5  0  b’  RH antiup 
AC’g’CrC’b’ X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0.5  r  LH down 
ACgC’r’C’b’ X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0.5  g  LH down 
AC’g’C’r’Cb X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0.5  b  LH down 
BC’g’CrC’b’ X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0  r  RH down 
BCgC’r’C’b’ X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0  g  RH down 
BC’g’C’r’Cb X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0  b  RH down 
B’CgCbC’r’ X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0  r’  LH antidown 
B’C’g’CbCr X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0  g’  LH antidown 
B’CgC’b’Cr X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0  b’  LH antidown 
A’CgCbC’r’ X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0.5  r’  RH antidown 
A’C’g’CbCr X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0.5  g’  RH antidown 
A’CgC’b’Cr X^{1}  0.3  0.5  0.5  b’  RH antidown 
B’C’g’CrC’b’ X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0  r  LH up 
B’CgC’r’C’b’ X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0  g  LH up 
B’C’g’C’r’Cb X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0  b  LH up 
A’C’g’CrC’b’ X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0.5  r  RH up 
A’CgC’r’C’b’ X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0.5  g  RH up 
A’C’g’C’r’Cb X^{1}  0.7  0.5  0.5  b  RH up 
where x^{1}= any one pair from AA’ or BB’or CC’.
Three colour subunits plus eleven units (charm quark, strange quark)
Preon unit andsubunits  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  ParticleColour  Particle name 
ACgCbC’r’X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0.5  r’  LH anticharm 
AC’g’CbCrX^{5}  0.7  0.5  0.5  g’  LH anticharm 
ACgC’b’CrX^{5}  0.7  0.5  0.5  b’  LH anticharm 
BCgCbC’r’ X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0  r’  RH anticharm 
B C’g’CbCrX^{5}  0.7  0.5  0  g’  RH anticharm 
B CgC’b’CrX^{5}  0.7  0.5  0  b’  RH anticharm 
AC’g’CrC’b’ X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0.5  r  LH strange 
ACgC’r’C’b’ X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0.5  g  LH strange 
AC’g’C’r’Cb X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0.5  b  LH strange 
BC’g’CrC’b’ X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0  r  RH strange 
BCgC’r’C’b’ X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0  g  RH strange 
BC’g’C’r’Cb X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0  b  RH strange 
B’CgCbC’r’ X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0  r’  LH antistrange 
B’C’g’CbCr X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0  g’  LH antistrange 
B’CgC’b’Cr X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0  b’  LH antistrange 
A’CgCbC’r’ X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0.5  r’  RH antistrange 
A’C’g’CbCr X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0.5  g’  RH antistrange 
A’CgC’b’Cr X^{5}  0.3  0.5  0.5  b’  RH antistrange 
B’C’g’CrC’b’ X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0  r  LH charm 
B’CgC’r’C’b’ X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0  g  LH charm 
B’C’g’C’r’Cb X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0  b  LH charm 
A’C’g’CrC’b’ X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0.5  r  RH charm 
A’CgC’r’C’b’ X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0.5  g  RH charm 
A’C’g’C’r’Cb X^{5}  0.7  0.5  0.5  b  RH charm 
where x^{5}= any five pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’.
Three colour subunits plus nineteen units (top quark, bottom quark)
Preon unit andsubunits  Electric charge  Spin  Weak isospin  ParticleColour  Particle name 
ACgCbC’r’X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0.5  r’  LH antitop 
AC’g’CbCrX^{9}  0.7  0.5  0.5  g’  LH antitop 
ACgC’b’CrX^{9}  0.7  0.5  0.5  b’  LH antitop 
BCgCbC’r’ X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0  r’  RH antitop 
B C’g’CbCrX^{9}  0.7  0.5  0  g’  RH antitop 
B CgC’b’CrX^{9}  0.7  0.5  0  b’  RH antitop 
AC’g’CrC’b’ X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0.5  r  LH bottom 
ACgC’r’C’b’ X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0.5  g  LH bottom 
AC’g’C’r’Cb X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0.5  b  LH bottom 
BC’g’CrC’b’ X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0  r  RH bottom 
BCgC’r’C’b’ X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0  g  RH bottom 
BC’g’C’r’Cb X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0  b  RH bottom 
B’CgCbC’r’ X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0  r’  LH antibottom 
B’C’g’CbCr X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0  g’  LH antibottom 
B’CgC’b’Cr X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0  b’  LH antibottom 
A’CgCbC’r’ X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0.5  r’  RH antibottom 
A’C’g’CbCr X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0.5  g’  RH antibottom 
A’CgC’b’Cr X^{9}  0.3  0.5  0.5  b’  RH antibottom 
B’C’g’CrC’b’ X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0  r  LH top 
B’CgC’r’C’b’ X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0  g  LH top 
B’C’g’C’r’Cb X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0  b  LH top 
A’C’g’CrC’b’ X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0.5  r  RH top 
A’CgC’r’C’b’ X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0.5  g  RH top 
A’C’g’C’r’Cb X^{9}  0.7  0.5  0.5  b  RH top 
where x^{9}= any nine pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’.
Conclusion
The paper shows a model for building elementary particles from six neutralcolour units and six coloured subunits of preons. The units are buit up from 48 different types of preon.
The sterile neutrino is in the list of particles, as is the Higgs and some completely scalar particles (or axion bosons). There are spinless bosons and spinless fermions in each generation of particles. In the higher generations, there are many combinations of spin with weak isospin, not listed in this paper, which are not found so frequently in the early generations, e.g. spin 3.5 with weak isospin 1.5. There are elementary particles found, but not listed here, listed with absolute values of electric charge greater than 1.
20 January 2014
Revised 22 May 2014 (Revised labelling of neutrinos and antineutrinos)
Revised 29 September 2014 (to include the term axion and to amend a typo in the forms of the RH d’, RH s’ and RH b’ antiquarks)
Manchester
England
Posted in physics
Tagged ben6993, boson, bottom, charge, color, colour, colour charge, dark matter, elementary particles, fermion, gluon, harari, higgs, preon, rishon, scalar particle, spin, sterile, sterile neutrinos, weak isospin
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Dice game to generate elementary particles in Preon Model 5
Attached is an Excel 2007 (.xlsm) file which uses Virtual Basic software to allow virtual dice to be rolled. Different combinations of rolled dice generate different elementary particles, according to my Preon Model 5.
Dice game for Model 5 elementary particles
Just download the file and click on appropriate buttons to roll the dice.
4 big dice give electrons, photons and neutrinos.
8 big dice give the Z and W.
12 big dice give the muon and muon neutrino.
16 big dice give the higgs and gluon.
20 big dice give the tauon and tauon neutrino.
3 small dice and three big dice give the up and down quarks
3 small dice and eleven big dice give the charm and strange quarks
3 small dice and nineteen big dice give the top and bottom quarks.
Have fun!
Ben6993
Manchester
England
1 January 2014
(Revised and renamed 14 January 2014)
Posted in physics
Tagged ben6993, bottom, charm, dark matter, down, elementary particles, gluon, harari, higgs, preon model 4d, preons, rishon, scalar particle, spinless, strange, top, up
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Family trees for elementary particles
Here is an excel file showing the family tree for elementary particles based on a modified preon/string structure: particle structures
Only the following particles are included at present: electron and positron, up and down quarks, neutrinos including sterile neutrino, W, Z and dark matter. The preon structures for muon, tauon and associated neutrinos and strange, charm, bottom and top quarks, colour charge operators and Higgs are known and will follow asap. Dark matter also occurs in different generations.
There are 24 preons in each of the electron and positron, up and down quarks, neutrinos and dark matter. The W and Z each have 48 preons.
Each sheet on the Excel file shows details of each preon/string in a particle. There are 60 different qualities or state of a preon/string e.g. a string could be: L’ r + 0 i.e. a Left handed or screwlike preon. The r indicates a red colour charge. The ‘ indicates that it is an antimatter preon. The + indicates that it has + spin. The 0 indicates that it has no weak isospin. Such a structure would automatically be known to have negative electric charge as that is associated with L’.
The electron appears to be static in the spreadsheet, but preons/strings move at speed c. Each colour charge inhabits a separate 4D so that makes a 12D space, at least, for each particle. In an electron, the three colour branes are twisting continually around one another in a triple helix in 12D.
The spreadsheets include snapshots from ancestry family tree software, where the smaller structures (ie 24preon particles) split off from bigger structures (48preon particles, e.g. W and Z) and the 48preon particles split off from 96preon particles (e.g. Higgs and gluons), and so on, showing where the higgs fits in the family with the other elementary particles.
Posted in physics, Uncategorized
Tagged antimatter, ben6993, colour charge, dark matter, higgs, particles, preons, sterile neutrinos, strings
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Here is an excel file (.xlsm) including visual basic code pair production
The program code ‘generates’ a fermion at random when you click on the “make” button. It shows the electric charge and colour charge of the fermion and the name of the particle. It also makes a cumulative count of the number of types of particle produced.
Note that a hypothetical dark matter particle, with zero electric and colour charge, is suggested. A dark matter particle is produced more frequently than an electron but less frequently than a quark.
Note also that electrons and positrons and dark matter particles in this model are not colourless but are symmetric in the three colours. I.e. the three colours appear in equal measure. Also a coloured quark is not wholly composed of one single colour or anticolour but has an imbalance in favour of one colour or anticolour.
Ben
(Post revised 9 July 2013 to include colour charge)
(Post revised 11 July 2013 )
(Post revised 12 July 2013)
Families of Elementary Particles in Preon Model #3
DRAFT 31May2013
Families of Elementary Particles in Preon Model #3
Abstract
Structures of families of elementary particles as combinations of preons are suggested in this paper to try to make Preon Model #3 more complete. Model #3 uses a modification of the Rishon preon model by elimination of the zero electric charge preon which has been replaced by two oppositely electrically charged preons. A preon has chirality, moves as speed c and is open ended in fermions and has closed ends in bosons and hence appears to be a string. It is suggested that the gluons have the same preon content as the higgs but that the preon pairing arrangement of the gluons is for a boson [i.e. (LL’) and (RR’) pairs] whereas the higgs has a (LR’) and (L’R) pairing of an electron or quark or dark matter particle. The gluon is suggested to be one particle in eight guises rather than eight different particles. A massles version of a Z particle is suggested and the massive Z is suggested to have (LR’) and (L’R) pairings of preons, making it, and the higgs, dark particles as they are neutral in charge. A dark matter particle is suggested with a mass of 65.7 GeV/c2. A table of interrelated masses of electron, quarks and dark matter particles is constructed shedding some light on the structures of these families of particles and which does not pair s with c nor b with t quarks. The baryon octet has been used to imply a structure for the strange quark’s preon contents.
Structures of families of elementary particles
Bosons
 The bosons in Model #3 have pairings of preons in the form LL’ and RR’ ( See The Structure of Elementary Particles: Preon Model #3).
Table 1 shows three potential bosons of Model #3.
Table 1 Bosons
Number of preons (half are LL’ and half are RR’) 
Particle 
24 
photon 
48 
{massless Z ?} 
96 (and 192) 
gluon 
The photon has 24 preons, with six pairs of LL’ and six of RR’. It is this preon pairing structure which gives the photon its linear speed c. Eight preons have red colour charge, eight have green and eight have blue. Overall the photon is symmetrically balanced in numbers and types of preons, and similarly with a neutral balance of electric charge and colour charge. Similarly, the Z particle has the same symmetry but with double the photon’s number of preons. The Z particle shown in Table 1 would be a boson and massless in Model #3 whereas the Standard Model Z boson has mass 91.2 GeV/c^{2}.
The gluon also has the same symmetry and overall neutrality of properties of the massless Z of Model #3. Why is the gluon in Model #3 a single particle when it is well known that the gluon is an octet described using SU(3)? In the same way that a Z particle is still a single particle despite being describable as a redup/antiredantiup quark pairing and at the same time a blueup/antiblueantiup quark pairing . It is still only one Z particle. A gluon can be a combination of those two quark pairings ie a redup/antiredantiup quark pairing plus a blueup/antiblueantiup quark pairing. But, despite all those colours and anticolours, the gluon is colour neutral in total, just as is the Z particle. But although the colour green was not mentioned in those names, that gluon is not deficient in green or antigreen. That is because in Model #3, a red quark is not wholly and exclusively red, but is does have more red preons than green or blue ones. A red up quark:
red up quark  (LR’) (L’R)(L’R) (L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R) (LR’)
(g’b’) (rb) (gr) (rg) (br) (bg) (gr) (rb) (rg) (gb) (br) – (b’g’) 
has 8 red, 6 green, 6 blue, 2 antigreen and 2 antiblue preons. The antired antiup quark:
antired antiup quark  (L’R) – (LR’) (LR’)(LR’) (LR’)(LR’) (LR’) (LR’)(LR’) (LR’) (LR’) – (L’R)
(gb) – (r’b’)(g’r’)(r’g’)(b’r’)(b’g’)(g’r’)(r’b’)(r’g’)(g’b’)(b’r’) – (bg) 
has 8 antired, 6 antigreen, 6 antiblue, 2 green and 2 blue preons. In total, for the Z particle, that adds to 8 red, 8 antired, 8 green, 8 antigreen, 8 blue and 8 antiblue preons which is symmetrical and neutral in all colours.
So a gluon could be [rr’bb’] where r’ indicates an antired quark. The rr’ part would be colour neutral as would be the bb’ part. So the gluon is colour neutral. In Model #3, the gluon must be colour neutral in order to be a boson. If the gluon retained its fourquark components within it then it could remain an octet, but that would make it a composite particle, not elementary and that would surely destroy its speed c. The gluon needs to be an elementary particle to attain speed c and masslessness and to allow the preon pairings to be released at a point in its interactions. This does lead to a question as to how the gluon knows which quarks to form at an interaction. At each quarkquark interaction mediated by a gluon, there is an input of a two quarks and an output of two quarks, so the gluon is not acting on its own and the inputted quarks lead to the determination of the outputted quarks after the interaction.
There is a second form of gluon with 192 preons which is the original gluon with two virtual pairs of samecolour quarkantiquark pairs inserted into the particle. For example, the gluon [rr’gg’{bb’}{bb’}] is the single gluon (described, say, using its guise [rr’gg’]) but with the inclusion of two virtual {bb’} pairs of quarks. The gluon is therefore not an octet, despite having an octet of names or guises.
Dark matter particles?
2. The higgs has 96 preons as does the massless gluon and, in model #3, the preons of the higgs are paired in the same manner as are quarks, i.e. in (LR’) and (L’R) pairings. Note that the higgs mass given in Table 2 is the heavier version, i.e. 126.6 (Contradictory Higgs boson measurements emerge at the LHC) rather than 125.3 as that enables the masses of a family of nhiggs particles to be modelled according to a simple formula. The Z^{0} is a boson with mass 91.2 GeV/c2 in the Standard Model, but there is a place for a massless boson in Model #3 (see Table 1). In this model, the higgs and massive Z^{0} are not bosons but are dark matter particles which are not completely uninteractive and so are perhaps are only semidark particles. These particles are neutral in electrical charge and in colour charge. The smallest particle with 24 preons is the candidate for the darkest dark matter particle as it is presumed to be easier to make that particle in an interaction that to recombine two of them into larger particle(s). A simple formula (= 91.2/1.388) has been used to calculate that the hypothetical dark matter particle with 24 preons has mass 65.7 GeV/c^{2}.
Table 2 Dark matter particles/ vacuum fields
Number of preons (half are LR’ and half are L’R) 
Particle 
Mass (GeV/c^{2}) 
24 
dark matter ? 
65.7 ? 
48 
Z^{0} 
91.2 
96 
higgs 
126.6 
2 times 96 
2higgs 
176 * 
4 times 96 
4higgs 
244 * 
8 times 96 
8higgs 
338 * 
16 times 96 
16higgs 
470 
32 times 96 
32higgs 
652 
64 times 96 
64higgs 
905 
128 times 96 
128higgs 
1256 
256 times 96 
256higgs 
1744 * 
512 times 96 
512higgs 
2420 * 
1024 times 96 
1024higgs 
3360 * 
* There is a tentative match of these calculated masses with empirical data here.
Neutrinos
3. The electron neutrino has 24 preons paired as (LR) and (L’R’). This pairing structure provides the neutrino with speed c and zero mass in Model #3. The pairing pattern is the only difference in structure between three particles: the photon, the neutrino and the hypothetical dark matter particle. It is speculated that the muon neutrino has 48 preons and the tauon neutrino has 96 preons. (Table 3.)
Table 3 Neutrinos
Number of preons (half are LR and half are L’R’) 
particle 
24 
neutrino 
48 
muon neutrino 
96 
tauon neutrino 
Electrons and quarks
4. Table 4 shows a straightforward suggestion for a structure of families of electrons and quarks. The main question is why there should be 48 and 96 preons, respectively, for the heavier siblings.
Table 4 Electrons and quarks


Particle


Number of preons

12 (LR’) pairs and 0 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
2 (LR’) pairs and 10 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
8 (LR’) pairs and 4 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
24 
electron 
up quark 
down quark 
48 
muon 
charm quark 
strange quark 
96 
tauon 
top quark 
bottom quark 
The muon was speculated to contain 48 preons because of the baryon octet structure. The baryon octet is: n, p, Λ^{0}, Σ, Σ+, Σ^{0}, Ξ and Ξ^{0} and unlike the gluons, the eight baryons are all different particles.
In terms of quarks the octet is: udd, uud, uds, dds, uus, uds, dss and uss. Note that Λ^{0} and Σ^{0} have identical quark structures. From an octet diagram, it is easy to see that n is diagonally opposite to Ξ^{0}. These two particles form an exact split of a larger entity, which is n + Ξ^{0} = udd + uss = 2(uds). This immediately gives Σ^{ 0} (and therefore also Λ0 which has the same structure) as a symmetric half of the whole entity which is why these two particles are at the centre of the octet diagram. Assuming that the octet is derived from different ways of halving the 2higgs, then a 2higgs is double the average element of this set. Ie 2u+2d+2s = 2higgs in terms of preon content. A 2Higgs has 192 preons while d and u each have 24 preons. So 2s must have 192 – 2*24 – 2*24 = 96 preons and therefore s has 48 preons. Also, s = d + Z/2. That makes the muon, in terms of preon content, an electron plus a half Z^{0} (massive) particle.
There appears to be an anomaly with particle masses in this structure. In swimming manuals (Counsilman, 1977), advice for the crawl stroke is to push one’s hand against as much different water as possible. I.e. to push against still water and not to push against the same water which you have already set moving away. The same may apply to the quarks. It is the electron which seems to have the structure which spins most consistently one way. The antiup quark is most like the electron and should spin less vigorously but maybe its structure is biting on more of the static higgs field, and hence the up may be heavier than the electron. The down quark is the least consistent in spin direction and maybe therefore be the heaviest of the three particles. The hypothetical dark particle with 24 preons may be even heavier as it is half rotating clockwise and half rotating anticlockwise. That arrangement might tend to give the most ‘still water to bite on’ as the ‘water’ is swished back and forth.
5. That analogy fails in the ordering of the masses of the s, c, b and t quarks in Table 4. An alternative structure, therefore, is tentatively suggested in Table 5.
Table 5 Electrons and quarks: tentative model structure
(with the dark matter particles for comparison; masses in MeV/c^{2})


Particle



Number of preons

12 (LR’) pairs and 0 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
2 (LR’) pairs and 10 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
8 (LR’) pairs and 4 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
Dark matter.
Preons equally of two types of pairs: (LR’) and (L’R) 
24 
electron (0.5) 
up quark (2.4) 
down quark (4.8) 
dark matter? (65700) 
48 
strange quark (104) 
Z^{0} (91200) 

96 
muon (106) 
charm quark (1270) 
bottom quark (4200) 
Higgs (126600) 
192 
2Higgs (176000) 

384 
tauon (1777) 
top quark (171200) 
4Higgs (244000) 
Table 5 satisfies a rule that the mass of a particle in a cell must be greater than the mass of any particle in a cell to the left and also be greater than the mass of any particle in a cell above. Table 5 could be used to imply that the muon neutrino might have 96 peons rather than 48, and the tauon neutrino might have 192 preons rathet than the 96 suggested in Table 3.
6. It is difficult to comprehend the huge masses of the dark matter particles in association with the small masses of the fermions to their left in the table. For that reason a tentative Model #3b structure has been suggested in Table 6 in which the dark matter masses have been reassigned to much larger assemblages of preons. The higgs particle in Table 6 is comprised of 24 * 2^{30} preons. Although there is a range of masses in the first row of Table 6 (row index zero) it is assumed that the masses in a row further down the table would be similar to the dark matter mass for that row, as the dark matter bulk would dominate the mass. The electron and up and down quarks are in row index zero in Table 6; the muon is in row 9 and the tauon in row 17. The strange is in row 9; the charm in row 16; the bottom is in row 20; while the top is in row 31, along with the 2Higgs dark matter particle. The Z is a dark matter particle in row 29 and the W is in the electron column also in row 30.
Table 6 Electrons, quarks and dark matter: tentative Model #3b
^{ }


Particles and masses in MeV/c^{2}




Number of preons (and row index) 
12 (LR’) pairs and 0 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
2 (LR’) pairs and 10 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
8 (LR’) pairs and 4 (L’R) pairs, and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs 
Dark matter
Preons equally of two types of pairs: (LR’) and (L’R) 

24 * 2^{0} 
electron (0.5) 
up quark (2.4) 
down quark (4.8) 
6.8^{a} 

24 * 2^{1} 
9.4 

24 * 2^{2} 
13.0 

24 * 2^{3} 
18.1 

24 * 2^{4} 
25.1 

24 * 2^{5} 
34.8 

24 * 2^{6} 
48 

24 * 2^{7} 
67 

24 * 2^{8} 
93 

24 * 2^{9} 
muon (106) 
strange quark (104) 
129 

24 * 2^{10} 
180 

24 * 2^{11} 
249 

24 * 2^{12} 
346 

24 * 2^{13} 
481 

24 * 2^{14} 
667 

24 * 2^{15} 
926 

24 * 2^{16} 
charm quark (1270) 
1285 

24 * 2^{17} 
tauon (1777) 
1783 

24 * 2^{18} 
2476 

24 * 2^{19} 
3436 

24 * 2^{20} 
bottom quark (4200) 
4770 

24 * 2^{21} 
6620 

24 * 2^{22} 
9200 

24 * 2^{23} 
12700 

24 * 2^{24} 
17700 

24 * 2^{25} 
24600 

24 * 2^{26} 
34100 

24 * 2^{27} 
47300 

24 * 2^{28} 
65700 

24 * 2^{29} 
W (80400) 
Z^{0} (91200) 

24 * 2^{30} 
Higgs (126600) 

24 * 2^{31} 
top quark (171200) 
2Higgs (176000) 

24 * 2^{32} 
4Higgs (244000) 

24 * 2^{33} 
8Higgs (338000) 

24 * 2^{34} 
470000 

24 * 2^{35} 
652000 

24 * 2^{36} 
905000 

24 * 2^{37} 
1256000 

24 * 2^{38} 
1744000 

24 * 2^{39} 
2420000 

24 * 2^{40} 
3360000  
(i.e. 24 * 2^{row index}) 

The Z seems a long way from the electron in Table 6, but it could decay to an electronpositron pair by releasing preons within the Z back to the vacuum as smaller particles of dark matter. Similarly, the muon can produce an electron by releasing its preons in smaller particles of dark matter at a particle interaction.
There are many dark matter particles listed in Table 6, but there is not one very close to 8600 MeV/c^{2} (Report of SuperCDMS Collaboration). The nearest is 9200 MeV/c^{2}. for a particle with 24 * 2^{22} preons. There are 40 rows shown in Table 6 but that is because the number of preons is double for each successive row. There is no reason why there could not be 24*2^{40}/24 = 2^{40} rows within Table 6. And there is no reason to stop at index 40. Two of the particle masses suggested experimentally by Dorigo (2013) appear, by my simple formulae, to correspond to the 3higgs and 6higgs which are between rows 31 and 33 in table 6.
Supersymmetry
Preon Model 3b, and Table 6, allow a better view of supersymmetry for heavy particles than in my previous models. All particles in any row of Table 6 are potential superpartners. Any dark matter particle in a row of Table 6 can have a boson and neutrino with identical preon content, but their properties will be different because of their different ways of pairing preons.
Heavy dark particles, ie particles at the bottom of Table 6 in the dark column such as the Z and Higgs, will behave as static particles (without linear speed c) as they have equal amounts of type (LR’) as of (L’R) pairings which give an equal amount of lefthanded and righthanded preons. With the higgs, for exaample, there will be 24*2^{29} lefthanded preons and 24*2^{29} righthanded preons. Their field effects cancel, on average, leaving a static field. That makes the higgs a dark matter particle. and the same for the Z particle. But the higgs and the Z could have partner particles with identical preon content in a boson column (not shown in Table 6), and also in a neutrino column (also not shown). A photon and neutrino near the top of such columns are massless with speed c, but if interference (between preons field effects) caused particles low down in the boson and neutrino columns to lose speed c and gain mass, then the Z and Higgs partners could exist with mass as bosons, rather than as dark matter particles. This effect could give the particles in the lower neutrino column to have mass. This could give rise to some massless neutrinos and some massive neutrinos, depending on position in the column. The muon neutrino might, for example, be speculated to be in row index 9 next to the muon while the tauon neutrino might be in row index 17 next to the tauon.
The W boson could be a mixture of an electron and a bosonic form of Z, rather than a mixture of an electron and a dark matter particle shown in table 6.
Although there is no news of statistically significant detection of supersymmetry from CERN, there appears to me to be a simple single formula which can be used to calculate masses of dark matter particles in CERN data. (ben6993, 2013.) These may simply be dark matter particles or bosonic particles rather than supersymmetric particles. In Preon Model #3, supersymmetry is already evident as the photon and neutrino have the same preon content but have different structures and different properties because of the different ways that their preons are arranged.
Summary
7. Structures of families of elementary particles as combinations of preons are suggested in this paper. Model #3 uses a modification of the Rishon preon model by elimination of the zero electric charge preon which has been replaced by two oppositely electrically charged preons. It is suggested that the gluons have the same preon content as the higgs, that is 96 preons, but that the preon pairing arrangement of the gluons is for a boson [i.e. (LL’) and (RR’) pairs] whereas the higgs has an (LR’) and (L’R) pairing of an electron or quark or dark matter particle. The gluon is suggested to be one particle in eight guises rather than eight different particles. A massles version of a Z particle (with 48 preons) is suggested and the massive Z is suggested to have (LR’) and (L’R) pairings of preons, making it, and the higgs, a dark particle as it is neutral in charge. A dark matter particle is suggested with a mass of 65.7 GeV/c2. A table of interrelated masses of electron, quarks and dark matter particles is constructed shedding some light on the structures of these families of particles and which does not pair s with c nor b with t quarks. The baryon octet has been used to imply a structure for the strange quark’s preon contents.
Experimental evidence for the mass of a dark particle in Table 2 would be desirable. Also, the experimental hints of masses of the nhiggs particles in Table 2 need confirmation. A mathematical treatment of the speculations in this paper might possibly be developed using string theory as a first approach as the preons appear to be strings.
An extension of the model, to Model #3b, sets the massive Z and Higgs particles as much more massive aggregations of preons than in Model #3. This allows a new range of lighter particles of dark matter. One such particle has mass 9200 Mev/c^{2} and is the closest, in Table 6, to the recently suggested dark matter particle with mass 8600 Mev/c^{2}. It also puts a very big distance between the Z and the electron/up/down particles in terms of preon numbers. In interactions involving large aggregations of preons, many preons are returnable covertly to the vacuum as dark matter particles plus lighter fermions.
Manchester
England
AJF/27May2013/v1
(revised/v3/31May2013)
References
ben6993, Dark matter WIMP mass of 65.7 GeV/c^2, (2013) http://wp.me/p18gTTi
ben6993, Masses of NHiggstype particles, (2013) http://wp.me/p18gTT8
ben6993, Preon model #3, (2013) https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/sci.physics.foundations/t4v45NeO6k
(Date sequenced notes showing development of ideas in model #3, but including false leads.)
ben6993, The Structure of Elementary Particles: Preon Model #3, (2013) http://wp.me/p18gTTn
Councilman, J. E., Competitive Swimming Manual for Coaches and Swimmers, (1977) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Counsilman
Dorigo, T., Guess the plot (2013) http://www.science20.com/quantum_diaries_survivor/blog/guess_plot_11101336
Dorigo, T., New CMS Results On Dijet Resonances (2013) http://www.science20.com/quantum_diaries_survivor/new_cms_results_dijet_resonances104684
SuperCDMS Collaboration, Dark Matter Search Results Using the Silicon Detectors of CDMS II , (2013) http://cdms.berkeley.edu/CDMSII_Si_DM_Results.pdf
Wired.co.uk, Contradictory Higgs boson measurements emerge at the LHC, (2012) http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/201212/17/higgsbosoncontradictoryresults
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