Preon Model 5: the building blocks of elementary particles

Preon Model 5: the building blocks of elementary particles

Introduction

In this paper, 48 types of preon are listed.  Preons of various types are arranged in six autonomous blocks or neutral-colour  units with 24 preons per unit in Units A, B, C, A’, B’ and C’.  Two of the neutral-colour units (C and C’) can each be divided into three single-colour sub-units with eight preons per sub-unit (Cr, Cg, Cb, C’r’, C’g’ and C’b’).  Elementary particles are formed when multiples of four units combine, ranging from the left-handed electron (four units: AAA’C) to a right-handed top quark (nineteen units plus three sub-units,  for example:  A’C’g’CrC’b’AA’BB’CC’AA’BB’CC’AA’BB’CC’).

The 48 Preons

The first property of a preon is electrical charge, either + or – charge.  This can be associated with a chiral structure for the preon. Say the negative charge is connected to a left-handed preon, L.  The right-handed preon, R, will have a positive charge.  There are also three colour charges (red [r], green [g] and blue [b]) and three anticolour charges (antired [r’], antigreen [g’] and antiblue [b’]).   Colour charges are connected to the L preon while anticolour charges are connected to the R preon.  Every preon has either spin + or spin – and has weak isospin + or -.  The 24 matter preons can have 24 antimatter preons (denoted L’ and R’) making 48 different preons in total.

Preons can be  labelled as :    Preon (electric charge) ( spin) (weak isospin) (colour charge)      e.g.  R ’ – + – r.

The 48 preons are:

24 preons

L- – -r L–+r L-+-r L-++r
L- – -g L–+g L-+-g L-++g
L- – -b L–+b L-+-b L-++b
R+–r’ R+-+r’ R++-r’ R+++r’
R+–g’ R+-+g’ R++-g’ R+++g’
R+–b’ R+-+b’ R++-b’ R+++b’

 

24 antipreons

L’+–r’ L’+-+r’ L’++-r’ L’+++r’
L’+–g’ L’+-+g’ L’++-g’ L’+++g’
L’+–b’ L’+-+b’ L’++-b’ L’+++b’
R’- – -r R’–+r R’-+-r R’-++r
R’- – -g R’–+g R’-+-g R’-++g
R’- – -b R’–+b R’-+-b R’-++b

(A preon’s electric charge is + or – 1/48; A preon’s spin is + or – 1/48; A preon’s weak isospin is + or – 1/48.)

The six neutral-colour units: A, B, C , A’, B’ and C’

Preon Unit A :  24 preons with equal numbers of types L- – -a, L- – -g, L- – -b,  R’- – -r, R’- – -g and R’- – -b.

Total electric charge -1/2; total spin -1/2; and total weak isospin -1/2

L- – -r L- – -r L- – -r L- – -r
L- – -g L- – -g L- – -g L- – -g
L- – -b L- – -b L- – -b L- – -b
R’- – -r R’- – -r R’- – -r R’- – -r
R’- – -g R’- – -g R’- – -g R’- – -g
R’- – -b R’- – -b R’- – -b R’- – -b

 

Preon Unit B :  48 preons with equal numbers of types L-+-a, L-+-g, L-+-b,  R’-+-r, R’-+-g, R’-+-b and

L-++a, L-++g, L-++b,  R’-++r, R’-++g, R’-++b

Total electric charge -1/2; total spin +1/2; and total weak isospin is zero

L-+-r L-++r L-+-r L-++r
L-+-g L-++g L-+-g L-++g
L-+-b L-++b L-+-b L-++b
R’-+-r R’-++r R’-+-r R’-++r
R’-+-g R’-++g R’-+-g R’-++g
R’-+-b R’-++b R’-+-b R’-++b

 

Preon Unit C :  48 preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons

Total electric charge -1/2; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L- – -r L–+r L-+-r L-++r
L- – -g L–+g L-+-g L-++g
L- – -b L–+b L-+-b L-++b
R’- – -r R’–+r R’-+-r R’-++r
R’- – -g R’–+g R’-+-g R’-++g
R’- – -b R’–+b R’-+-b R’-++b

 

Preon Unit A’ :  48 preons with equal numbers of types L’+++r’, L’+++g’, L’+++b’,  L’+++r’, L’+++g’,  L’+++b’ .

Total electric charge +1/2; total spin +1/2; and total weak isospin +1/2

L’+++r’ L’+++r’ L’+++r’ L’+++r’
L’+++g’ L’+++g’ L’+++g’ L’+++g’
L’+++b’ L’+++b’ L’+++b’ L’+++b’
R+++r’ R+++r’ R+++r’ R+++r’
R+++g’ R+++g’ R+++g’ R+++g’
R+++b’ R+++b’ R+++b’ R+++b’

 

Preon Unit B’ :  48 preons with equal numbers of types L’+–r’, L’+–g’, L’+–b’,  R+–r’, R+–g’, R+–b’ and

L’+-+r’, L’+-+g’, L’+-+b’,  R+-+r’, R+-+g’, R+-+b’

Total electric charge +1/2; total spin -1/2; and total weak isospin is zero

L’+–r’ L’+-+r’ L’+–r’ L’+-+r’
L’+–g’ L’+-+g’ L’+–g’ L’+-+g’
L’+–b’ L’+-+b’ L’+–b’ L’+-+b’
R+–r’ R+-+r’ R+–r’ R+-+r’
R+–g’ R+-+g’ R+–g’ R+-+g’
R+–b’ R+-+b’ R+–b’ R+-+b’

 

Preon Unit C’ :  48 preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons

Total electric charge +1/2; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L’+–r’ L’+-+r’ L’++-r’ L’+++r’
L’+–g’ L’+-+g’ L’++-g’ L’+++g’
L’+–b’ L’+-+b’ L’++-b’ L’+++b’
R+–r’ R+-+r’ R++-r’ R+++r’
R+–g’ R+-+g’ R++-g’ R+++g’
R+–b’ R+-+b’ R++-b’ R+++b’

 

The six colour sub-units: Cr, Cg, Cb, C’r’, C’g’ and C’b’

Preon Unit Cr :  16 red preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons

Total electric charge -1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L- – -r L–+r L-+-r L-++r
R’- – -r R’–+r R’-+-r R’-++r

 

Preon Unit Cg :  16 green preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons

Total electric charge -1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L- – -g L–+g L-+-g L-++g
R’- – -g R’–+g R’-+-g R’-++g

 

Preon Unit Cb :  16 blue preons with equal numbers of all types of L and R’ preons

Total electric charge -1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L- – -b L–+b L-+-b L-++b
R’- – -b R’–+b R’-+-b R’-++b

 

Preon Unit C’r’ :  16 antired preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons

Total electric charge +1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L’+–r’ L’+-+r’ L’++-r’ L’+++r’
R+–r’ R+-+r’ R++-r’ R+++r’

 

Preon Unit C’g’ :  16 antigreen preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons

Total electric charge +1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L’+–g’ L’+-+g’ L’++-g’ L’+++g’
R+–g’ R+-+g’ R++-g’ R+++g’

 

Preon Unit C’b’ :  16 antiblue preons with equal numbers of all types of L’ and R preons

Total electric charge +1/6; total spin is zero; and total weak isospin is zero

L’+–b’ L’+-+b’ L’++-b’ L’+++b’
R+–b’ R+-+b’ R++-b’ R+++b’

 

Summary of preon unit and sub-unit properties

Unit/sub-unit Number of preons Electric charge Spin Weak isospin Colour
A 24 -1/2 -1/2 -1/2 neutral
B 24 -1/2 +1/2 0 neutral
C 24 -1/2 0 0 neutral
A’ 24 +1/2 +1/2 +1/2 neutral
B’ 24 +1/2 -1/2 0 neutral
C’ 24 +1/2 0 0 neutral
Cr 8 -1/6 0 0 red
Cg 8 -1/6 0 0 green
Cb 8 -1/6 0 0 blue
C’r’ 8 +1/6 0 0 antired
C’g’ 8 +1/6 0 0 antigreen
C’b’ 8 +1/6 0 0 antiblue


Unit properties of electric charge, spin and weak isospin are simple sums of the values of those properties of the preons in those units .  Every unit and sub-unit contains an equal number of matter and anti-matter preons.

 

 

Calculating particle colour from preon sub-unit colour

Firstpreon color sub-unit Secondpreon color sub-unit Thirdpreon color sub-unit Particle colour
r g b neutral
r g b’ antiblue
r g’ b antigreen
r g’ b’ red
r’ g b antired
r’ g b’ green
r’ g’ b blue
r’ g’ b’ neutral


Index of tables of particles

Particles are  made from combinations of :

four preon units (electron, photon, neutrino)
eight preon units (Z, W)
twelve preon units (muon, muon neutrino)
sixteen preon units (Higgs, gluon)
twenty preon units (tauon, tauon neutrino)
32 preon units (2-Higgs, gluon)
three colour sub-units plus three unit (up, down)
three colour sub-units plus eleven units (charm, strange)
three colour sub-units plus nineteen units (top,bottom)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two preon units 

Combinations of only two units, in Model 5, are not elementary particles but show the essential constuents which give the required charge, spin and weak isospin properties of electrons, neutrinos and W particles.   The scalar combinations are important to the model as they form neutral building blocks to add to the two-unit combinations to generate 4-unit or more  particles.

 

21 combinations of two units:

Preon units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin Combination type
AC -1 -0.5 -0.5 l.h.  electron
BC -1 0.5 0 r.h. electron
AC’ 0 -0.5 -0.5 l.h. antineutrino
B’C 0 -0.5 0 l.h. sterile neutrino
A’C 0 0.5 0.5 r.h neutrino
BC’ 0 0.5 0 sterile antineutrino
AA -1 -1 -1 W-
A’A’ 1 1 1 W+
B’C’ 1 -0.5 0 l.h. positron
A’C’ 1 0.5 0.5 r.h. positron
non-standard model:
AB -1 0 -0.5 quasi-electron?
A’B’ 1 0 0.5 quasi-positron?
B’B’ 1 -1 0 l.h. W+ ?
BB -1 1 0 r.h. W- ?
AA’ 0 0 0 scalar particle
BB’ 0 0 0 scalar particle
CC’ 0 0 0 scalar particle
CC -1 0 0 spinless electron
C’C’ 1 0 0 spinless positron
AB’ 0 -1 -0.5 quasi-photon?
A’B 0 1 0.5 quasi-photon?

 

 

Four preon units (electron, photon, neutrino)   

 

The four-unit combinations are the smallest combinations for the photon and higgs particles and the four-unit block is taken here as the smallest form of any elementary particle.  For example a left-handed electron could be ACAA’ or ACBB’ or ACCC’.

 

Preon units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin Particle name
ACx1 -1 -0.5 -0.5 l.h.  electron
BCx1 -1 0.5 0 r.h. electron
A’C’x1 1 0.5 0.5 r.h. positron
B’C’x1 1 0.5 0.5 l.h. positron
AC’x1 0 -0.5 -0.5 l.h. antineutrino
BC’x1 0 0.5 0 r.h.sterile antineutrino
A’Cx1 0 0.5 0.5 r.h. neutrino
B’Cx1 0 -0.5 0 l.h. sterile neutrino
B’B’CC 0 -1 0 photon
BBC’C’ 0 1 0 photon
non-standard model:
x2 0 0 0 scalar particle or axion
ABC’C’ 0 0 -0.5 Higgs-like particle
A’B’CC 0 0 +0.5 Higgs-like particle

where x1=any one of three pairs: AA’ or BB’or CC’

where x2= any two pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’,  e.g.  AA’AA’ or AA’BB’ or BB’CC’

Hence there are 3 forms reperented by an x1, 9 forms represented by an x2 , and 3n forms represented by xn.

 

The higher generations of particles which follow use the above basic forms plus the addition of scalar pairs of preon units.  Quarks are dealt with later in the paper.

Eight preon units (Z, W)   

Preon units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin Particle name
AAx3 -1 -1 -1 l.h. W-
A’A’x3 1 1 1 r.h. W+
B’B’CCx2 0 -1 0 Z
BBC’C’x2 0 1 0 Z
non-standard model:
x4 0 0 0 scalar particle or axion
ABC’C’x2 0 0 -0.5 Higgs-like particle
A’B’CCx2 0 0 0.5 Higgs-like particle

where x2= any two pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’,  e.g.  AA’AA’ or AA’BB’ or BB’CC’

where x3= any three pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’,  e.g.  AA’AA’BB’ or AA’BB’CC’

where x4= any four pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’,  e.g.  AA’AA’BB’CC’

 

Twelve preon units (muon, muon neutrino)

Preon units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin Particle name
ACx5 -1 -0.5 -0.5 l.h. muon-
BCx5 -1 0.5 0 r.h. muon-
AC’x5 0 -0.5 -0.5 l.h. muon antineutrino
B’Cx5 0 -0.5 0 l.h. muon neutrino
BC’x5 0 0.5 0 r.h. muon antineutrino
A’Cx5 0 0.5 0.5 r.h. muon neutrino
B’C’x5 1 -0.5 0 l.h. muon+
A’C’x5 1 0.5 0.5 r.h. muon+
non-standard model:
x6 0 0 0 scalar particle or axion
ABC’C’ x4 0 0 -0.5 Higgs-like particle
A’B’CC x4 0 0 +0.5 Higgs-like particle

where xn= any n pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’

Sixteen preon units (gluon, Higgs)

Preon units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin Particle name
B’B’CCx6 0 -1 0 gluon
BBC’C’x6 0 1 0 gluon
ABC’C’x6 0 0 -0.5 Higgs
A’B’CCx6 0 0 0.5 Higgs
x8 0 0 0 scalar particle or axion

where x6 = any six pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’,  e.g.  AA’AA’BB’BB’BB’CC’

where x8 = any four pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’,  e.g.  AA’AA’AA’BB’BB’CC’CC’CC’

 

Twenty preon units (tauon and tauon neutrino)

Preon units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin Particle name
ACx9 -1 -0.5 -0.5 l.h. tauon-
BCx9 -1 0.5 0 r.h. tauon-
B’Cx9 0 -0.5 0 l.h. tauon neutrino
BC’x9 0 0.5 0 r.h. tauon antineutrino
A’Cx9 0 0.5 0.5 r.h. tauon neutrino
AC’x9 0 -0.5 -0.5 l.h. tauon antineutrino
B’C’x9 1 -0.5 0 l.h. tauon+
A’C’x9 1 0.5 0.5 r.h. tauon+
non-standard model:
x10 0 0 0 scalar particle or axion
ABC’C’ x8 0 0 -0.5 Higgs-like particle
A’B’CC x8 0 0 +0.5 Higgs-like particle

where xn= any n pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’

 

Three colour sub-units plus three units (up quark, down quark)

Preon unit andsub-units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin ParticleColour Particle name
ACgCbC’r’X1 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 r’ LH antiup
AC’g’CbCrX1 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 g’ LH antiup
ACgC’b’CrX1 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 b’ LH antiup
BCgCbC’r’ X1 -0.7 0.5 0 r’ RH antiup
B C’g’CbCrX1 -0.7 0.5 0 g’ RH antiup
B CgC’b’CrX1 -0.7 0.5 0 b’ RH antiup
AC’g’CrC’b’ X1 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 r LH down
ACgC’r’C’b’ X1 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 g LH down
AC’g’C’r’Cb X1 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 b LH down
BC’g’CrC’b’ X1 -0.3 0.5 0 r RH down
BCgC’r’C’b’ X1 -0.3 0.5 0 g RH down
BC’g’C’r’Cb X1 -0.3 0.5 0 b RH down
B’CgCbC’r’ X1 0.3 -0.5 0 r’ LH antidown
B’C’g’CbCr X1 0.3 -0.5 0 g’ LH antidown
B’CgC’b’Cr X1 0.3 -0.5 0 b’ LH antidown
A’CgCbC’r’ X1 0.3 0.5 0.5 r’ RH antidown
A’C’g’CbCr X1 0.3 0.5 0.5 g’ RH antidown
A’CgC’b’Cr X1 0.3 0.5 0.5 b’ RH antidown
B’C’g’CrC’b’ X1 0.7 -0.5 0 r LH up
B’CgC’r’C’b’ X1 0.7 -0.5 0 g LH up
B’C’g’C’r’Cb X1 0.7 -0.5 0 b LH up
A’C’g’CrC’b’ X1 0.7 0.5 0.5 r RH up
A’CgC’r’C’b’ X1 0.7 0.5 0.5 g RH up
A’C’g’C’r’Cb X1 0.7 0.5 0.5 b RH up

where x1= any one pair from AA’ or BB’or CC’.

 

Three colour sub-units plus eleven units (charm quark, strange quark)

Preon unit andsub-units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin ParticleColour Particle name
ACgCbC’r’X5 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 r’ LH anticharm
AC’g’CbCrX5 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 g’ LH anticharm
ACgC’b’CrX5 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 b’ LH anticharm
BCgCbC’r’ X5 -0.7 0.5 0 r’ RH anticharm
B C’g’CbCrX5 -0.7 0.5 0 g’ RH anticharm
B CgC’b’CrX5 -0.7 0.5 0 b’ RH anticharm
AC’g’CrC’b’ X5 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 r LH strange
ACgC’r’C’b’ X5 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 g LH strange
AC’g’C’r’Cb X5 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 b LH strange
BC’g’CrC’b’ X5 -0.3 0.5 0 r RH strange
BCgC’r’C’b’ X5 -0.3 0.5 0 g RH strange
BC’g’C’r’Cb X5 -0.3 0.5 0 b RH strange
B’CgCbC’r’ X5 0.3 -0.5 0 r’ LH antistrange
B’C’g’CbCr X5 0.3 -0.5 0 g’ LH antistrange
B’CgC’b’Cr X5 0.3 -0.5 0 b’ LH antistrange
A’CgCbC’r’ X5 0.3 0.5 0.5 r’ RH antistrange
A’C’g’CbCr X5 0.3 0.5 0.5 g’ RH antistrange
A’CgC’b’Cr X5 0.3 0.5 0.5 b’ RH antistrange
B’C’g’CrC’b’ X5 0.7 -0.5 0 r LH charm
B’CgC’r’C’b’ X5 0.7 -0.5 0 g LH charm
B’C’g’C’r’Cb X5 0.7 -0.5 0 b LH charm
A’C’g’CrC’b’ X5 0.7 0.5 0.5 r RH charm
A’CgC’r’C’b’ X5 0.7 0.5 0.5 g RH charm
A’C’g’C’r’Cb X5 0.7 0.5 0.5 b RH charm

where x5= any five pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’.

 

Three colour sub-units plus nineteen units (top quark, bottom quark)

Preon unit andsub-units Electric charge Spin Weak isospin ParticleColour Particle name
ACgCbC’r’X9 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 r’ LH antitop
AC’g’CbCrX9 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 g’ LH antitop
ACgC’b’CrX9 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 b’ LH antitop
BCgCbC’r’ X9 -0.7 0.5 0 r’ RH antitop
B C’g’CbCrX9 -0.7 0.5 0 g’ RH antitop
B CgC’b’CrX9 -0.7 0.5 0 b’ RH antitop
AC’g’CrC’b’ X9 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 r LH bottom
ACgC’r’C’b’ X9 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 g LH bottom
AC’g’C’r’Cb X9 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5 b LH bottom
BC’g’CrC’b’ X9 -0.3 0.5 0 r RH bottom
BCgC’r’C’b’ X9 -0.3 0.5 0 g RH bottom
BC’g’C’r’Cb X9 -0.3 0.5 0 b RH bottom
B’CgCbC’r’ X9 0.3 -0.5 0 r’ LH antibottom
B’C’g’CbCr X9 0.3 -0.5 0 g’ LH antibottom
B’CgC’b’Cr X9 0.3 -0.5 0 b’ LH antibottom
A’CgCbC’r’ X9 0.3 0.5 0.5 r’ RH antibottom
A’C’g’CbCr X9 0.3 0.5 0.5 g’ RH antibottom
A’CgC’b’Cr X9 0.3 0.5 0.5 b’ RH antibottom
B’C’g’CrC’b’ X9 0.7 -0.5 0 r LH top
B’CgC’r’C’b’ X9 0.7 -0.5 0 g LH top
B’C’g’C’r’Cb X9 0.7 -0.5 0 b LH top
A’C’g’CrC’b’ X9 0.7 0.5 0.5 r RH top
A’CgC’r’C’b’ X9 0.7 0.5 0.5 g RH top
A’C’g’C’r’Cb X9 0.7 0.5 0.5 b RH top

where x9= any nine pairs from AA’ or BB’or CC’.

 

Conclusion

The paper shows a model for building elementary particles from six neutral-colour units and six coloured sub-units of preons.  The units are buit up from 48 different types of preon.

 

The sterile neutrino is in the list of particles, as is the Higgs and some completely scalar particles (or axion bosons).  There are spinless bosons and spinless fermions in each generation of particles.   In the higher generations, there are many combinations of spin with weak isospin, not listed in this paper, which are not found so frequently in the early generations, e.g. spin -3.5 with weak isospin -1.5.  There are elementary particles found, but not listed here, listed with absolute values of electric charge greater than 1.

 

 

 

 

 

20 January 2014

Revised 22 May 2014 (Revised labelling of neutrinos and antineutrinos)

Revised 29 September 2014 (to include the term axion and to amend a typo in the forms of the RH d’, RH s’ and RH b’ antiquarks)

Manchester

England

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