Families of Elementary Particles in Preon Model #3

DRAFT 31May2013

Families of Elementary Particles in Preon Model #3

 Abstract

 Structures of families of elementary particles as combinations of preons are suggested in this paper to try to make Preon Model #3 more complete.  Model #3 uses a modification of the Rishon preon model by elimination of the zero electric charge preon which has been replaced by two oppositely electrically charged preons.  A preon has chirality, moves as speed c and is open ended in fermions and has closed ends in bosons and hence appears to be a string. It is suggested that the gluons have the same preon content as the higgs but that the preon pairing arrangement of the gluons is for a boson [i.e. (LL’) and (RR’) pairs] whereas the higgs has a (LR’) and (L’R) pairing of an electron or quark or dark matter particle.  The gluon is suggested to be one particle in eight guises rather than eight different particles.  A massles version of a Z particle is suggested and the massive Z is suggested to have (LR’) and (L’R) pairings of preons, making it, and the higgs, dark particles as they are neutral in charge.  A dark matter particle is suggested with a mass of 65.7 GeV/c2.  A table of interrelated masses of electron, quarks and dark matter particles is constructed shedding some light on the structures of these families of particles and which does not pair s with c nor b with t quarks.  The baryon octet has been used to imply a structure for the strange quark’s preon contents.

 

Structures of families of elementary particles

Bosons

  1. The bosons in Model #3 have pairings of preons in the form LL’ and RR’ ( See The Structure of Elementary Particles: Preon Model #3).

Table 1 shows three potential bosons of Model #3.

Table 1 Bosons

Number of preons

(half are LL’ and half are RR’)

Particle

24

photon

48

{massless Z ?}

96 (and 192)

gluon

The photon has 24 preons, with six pairs of LL’ and six of RR’.   It is this preon pairing structure which gives the photon its linear speed c.  Eight preons have red colour charge, eight have green and eight have blue.   Overall the photon is symmetrically balanced in numbers and types of preons, and similarly with a neutral balance of electric charge and colour charge.   Similarly, the Z particle has the same symmetry but with double the photon’s number of preons.  The Z particle shown in Table 1 would be a boson and massless in Model #3 whereas the Standard Model Z boson has mass 91.2 GeV/c2. 

The gluon also has the same symmetry and overall neutrality of properties of the massless Z of Model #3.  Why is the gluon in Model #3 a single particle when it is well known that the gluon is an octet described using SU(3)?  In the same way that a Z particle is still a single particle despite being describable as a red-up/antired-antiup quark pairing and at the same time a blue-up/antiblue-antiup quark pairing .  It is still only one Z particle.  A gluon can be a combination of those two quark pairings ie a red-up/antired-antiup quark pairing plus a blue-up/antiblue-antiup quark pairing.  But, despite all those colours and anticolours, the gluon is colour neutral in total, just as is the Z particle.  But although the colour green was not mentioned in those names, that gluon is not deficient in green or antigreen.  That is because in Model #3, a red quark is not wholly and exclusively red, but is does have more red preons than green or blue ones.  A red up quark:

red up quark (LR’) -(L’R)(L’R) (L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)(L’R)- (LR’)

(g’b’) -(rb) (gr)  (rg)   (br)  (bg) (gr)  (rb) (rg) (gb)  (br) –  (b’g’)

has 8 red, 6 green, 6 blue, 2 antigreen and 2 antiblue preons.  The antired antiup quark:

antired antiup quark (L’R) – (LR’) (LR’)(LR’) (LR’)(LR’) (LR’) (LR’)(LR’) (LR’) (LR’) –  (L’R)

(gb) –  (r’b’)(g’r’)(r’g’)(b’r’)(b’g’)(g’r’)(r’b’)(r’g’)(g’b’)(b’r’) –  (bg)

has 8 antired, 6 antigreen, 6 antiblue, 2 green and 2 blue preons.    In total, for the Z particle, that adds to 8 red, 8 antired, 8 green, 8 antigreen, 8 blue and 8 antiblue preons which is symmetrical and neutral in all colours.

So a gluon could be [rr’bb’] where r’ indicates an antired quark.  The rr’ part would be colour neutral as would be the bb’ part.  So the gluon is colour neutral.  In Model #3, the gluon must be colour neutral in order to be a boson.  If the gluon retained its four-quark components within it then it could remain an octet, but that would make it a composite particle, not elementary and that would surely destroy its speed c. The gluon needs to be an elementary particle to attain speed c and masslessness and to allow the preon pairings to be released at a point in its interactions.  This does lead to a question as to how the gluon knows which quarks to form at an interaction.    At each quark-quark interaction mediated by a gluon, there is an input  of a two quarks and an output of two quarks, so the gluon is not acting on its own and the inputted quarks lead to the determination of the outputted quarks after the interaction.

There is a second form of gluon with 192 preons which is the original gluon with two virtual pairs of same-colour quark-antiquark pairs inserted into the particle.  For example, the gluon [rr’gg’{bb’}{bb’}] is the single gluon (described, say, using its guise [rr’gg’]) but with the inclusion of two virtual {bb’} pairs of quarks.  The gluon is therefore not an octet, despite having an octet of names or guises.

Dark matter particles?

2. The higgs has 96 preons as does the massless gluon and, in model #3, the preons of the higgs are paired in the same manner as are quarks, i.e. in (LR’) and (L’R) pairings.    Note that the higgs mass given in Table 2 is the heavier version, i.e. 126.6 (Contradictory Higgs boson measurements emerge at the LHC) rather than 125.3 as  that enables the masses of a family of n-higgs particles to be modelled according to a simple formula.   The Z0 is a boson with mass 91.2 GeV/c2 in the Standard Model, but there is a place for a massless boson in Model #3 (see Table 1).  In this model, the higgs and massive Z0 are not bosons but are dark matter particles which are not completely uninteractive and so are perhaps are only semi-dark particles.  These particles are neutral in electrical charge and in colour charge.  The smallest particle with 24 preons is the candidate for the  darkest dark matter particle as it is presumed to be easier to make that particle in an interaction that to recombine two of them into larger particle(s).  A simple formula (= 91.2/1.388) has been used to calculate that the hypothetical dark matter particle with 24 preons has mass 65.7 GeV/c2.

Table 2  Dark matter particles/ vacuum fields

Number of preons

(half are LR’ and half are L’R)

Particle

Mass

(GeV/c2)

24

dark matter ?

    65.7 ?

48

Z0

  91.2

96

higgs

126.6

2 times 96

2-higgs

   176 *

4 times 96

4-higgs

   244 *

8 times 96

8-higgs

   338 *

16 times 96

16-higgs

470

32 times 96

32-higgs

652

64 times 96

64-higgs

905

128 times 96

128-higgs

1256

256 times 96

256-higgs

   1744 *

512 times 96

512-higgs

   2420 *

1024 times 96

1024-higgs

    3360 *

* There is a tentative match of these calculated masses with empirical data here.

Neutrinos

3.  The electron neutrino has 24 preons paired as (LR) and (L’R’).   This pairing structure provides the neutrino with speed c and zero mass in Model #3.  The pairing pattern is the only difference in structure between three particles: the photon, the neutrino and the hypothetical dark matter particle.  It is speculated that the muon neutrino has 48 preons and the tauon neutrino has 96 preons. (Table 3.)

Table 3 Neutrinos

Number of preons

(half are LR and half are L’R’)

particle

24

neutrino

48

muon neutrino

96

tauon neutrino

 Electrons and quarks

4.  Table 4 shows a straightforward suggestion for a structure of families of electrons and quarks.  The main question is why there should be 48 and 96 preons, respectively, for the heavier siblings.

 Table 4  Electrons and quarks

 

 

Particle

 

 

Number of preons

 

12 (LR’) pairs and

0 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

2 (LR’) pairs and

10 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

8 (LR’) pairs and

4 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

24

electron

up quark

down quark

48

muon

charm quark

strange quark

96

tauon

top quark

bottom quark

The muon was speculated to contain 48 preons because of the baryon octet structure.   The baryon octet is: n, p, Λ0, Σ-, Σ+, Σ0, Ξ- and Ξ0 and unlike the gluons, the eight baryons are all different particles.

In terms of quarks the octet is: udd, uud, uds, dds, uus, uds, dss and uss.  Note that Λ0 and Σ0 have identical quark structures.  From an octet diagram, it is easy to see that n is diagonally opposite to Ξ0.  These two particles form an exact split of a larger entity, which is n + Ξ0  = udd + uss = 2(uds).  This immediately gives Σ 0 (and therefore also Λ0 which has the same structure) as a symmetric half of the whole entity which is why these two particles are at the centre of the octet diagram.   Assuming that the octet is derived from different ways of halving the 2-higgs, then a 2-higgs is double the average element of this set.  Ie 2u+2d+2s = 2-higgs in terms of preon content.   A 2-Higgs has 192 preons while d and u each have 24 preons.  So 2s must have 192 – 2*24 – 2*24 = 96 preons and therefore s has 48 preons.  Also, s = d + Z/2.   That makes the muon, in terms of preon content, an electron plus a half Z0 (massive) particle.

There appears to be an anomaly with particle masses in this structure.   In swimming manuals (Counsilman, 1977), advice for the crawl stroke is to push one’s hand against as much different water as possible.  I.e. to push against still water and not to push against the same water which you have already set moving away.  The same may apply to the quarks.  It is the electron which seems to have the structure which spins most consistently one way.  The antiup quark is most like the electron and should spin less vigorously but maybe its structure is biting on more of the static higgs field, and hence the up may be heavier than the electron.  The down quark is the least consistent in spin direction and maybe therefore be the heaviest of the three particles.  The hypothetical dark particle with 24 preons may be even heavier as it is half rotating clockwise and half rotating anticlockwise. That arrangement might tend to give the most ‘still water to bite on’ as the ‘water’ is swished back and forth.

5.  That analogy fails in the ordering of the masses of the s, c, b and t quarks in Table 4.  An alternative structure, therefore, is tentatively suggested in Table 5.

Table 5  Electrons and quarks: tentative model structure

               (with the dark matter particles for comparison; masses in MeV/c2)

 

 

Particle

 

 

 

Number of preons

 

12 (LR’) pairs and

0 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

2 (LR’) pairs and

10 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

8 (LR’) pairs and

4 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

Dark matter.

 

Preons equally of two types of pairs: (LR’) and (L’R)

  24

electron (0.5)

up quark (2.4)

down quark (4.8)

dark matter? (65700)

  48

   

strange quark (104)

Z0 (91200)

  96

muon (106)

charm quark (1270)

bottom quark (4200)

Higgs (126600)

192

     

2-Higgs (176000)

384

tauon (1777)

top quark (171200)

 

4-Higgs (244000)

Table 5 satisfies a rule that the mass of a particle in a cell must be greater than the mass of any particle in a cell to the left and also be greater than the mass of any particle in a cell above.  Table 5 could be used to imply that the muon neutrino might have 96 peons rather than 48, and the tauon neutrino might have 192 preons rathet than the 96 suggested in Table 3.

6.  It is difficult to comprehend the huge masses of the dark matter particles in association with the small masses of the fermions to their left in the table. For that reason a tentative Model #3b structure has been suggested in Table 6 in which the dark matter masses have been re-assigned to much larger assemblages of preons.  The higgs particle in Table 6 is comprised of 24 * 230 preons.  Although there is a range of masses in the first row of Table 6 (row index zero)  it is assumed that the masses in a row further down the table would be  similar to the dark matter mass for that row, as the dark matter bulk would dominate the mass.   The electron and up and down quarks are in row index zero in Table 6; the muon is in row 9 and the tauon in row 17.   The strange is in row 9; the charm in row 16; the bottom is in row 20; while the top is in row 31, along with the 2-Higgs dark matter particle.  The Z is a dark matter particle in row 29 and the W is in the electron column also in row 30.

 

Table 6  Electrons, quarks and dark matter: tentative Model #3b

 

 

 

 

Particles and masses in MeV/c2

 

 

 

 

Number of preons

(and row index)

12 (LR’) pairs and

0 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

2 (LR’) pairs and

10 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

8 (LR’) pairs and

4 (L’R) pairs,

and any remaining preons equally of these two types of pairs

Dark matter

 

 

Preons equally of two types of pairs: (LR’) and (L’R)

 
           

24 * 20

electron (0.5)

up quark (2.4)

down quark (4.8)

6.8a

   

24 * 21

     

9.4

   

 24 * 22

     

13.0

   

24 * 23

     

18.1

   

24 * 24

     

25.1

   

24 * 25

     

34.8

   

24 * 26

     

48

   

24 * 27

     

67

   

24 * 28

     

93

   

24 * 29

muon (106)

 

strange quark (104)

129

   

24 * 210

     

180

   

24 * 211

     

249

   

24 * 212

     

346

   

24 * 213

     

481

   

24 * 214

     

667

   

24 * 215

     

926

   

24 * 216

 

charm quark (1270)

 

1285

   

24 * 217

tauon (1777)

   

1783

   

24 * 218

     

2476

   

24 * 219

     

3436

   

24 * 220

   

bottom quark (4200)

4770

   

24 * 221

     

6620

   

24 * 222

     

9200

   

24 * 223

     

12700

   

24 * 224

     

17700

   

24 * 225

     

24600

   

24 * 226

     

34100

   

24 * 227

     

47300

   

24 * 228

     

65700

 

24 * 229

W (80400)

   

Z0 (91200)

 

24 * 230

     

Higgs (126600)

 

24 * 231

 

top quark (171200)

 

2-Higgs (176000)

 

24 * 232

     

4-Higgs (244000)

 

24 * 233

     

8-Higgs (338000)

 

24 * 234

     

470000

 

24 * 235

     

652000

 

24 * 236

     

905000

 

24 * 237

     

1256000

 

24 * 238

     

 1744000

 

24 * 239

     

 2420000

 

24 * 240

       3360000  

(i.e. 24 * 2row index)

     
  1. it is unclear if 6.8 or 9.4 should be in the first row.
 

The Z seems a long way from the electron in Table 6, but it could decay to an electron-positron pair by releasing preons within the Z back to the vacuum as smaller particles of dark matter.  Similarly, the muon can produce an electron by releasing its preons in smaller particles of dark matter at a particle interaction.

There are many dark matter particles listed in Table 6, but there is not one very close to 8600 MeV/c2 (Report of SuperCDMS Collaboration).  The nearest is 9200 MeV/c2. for a particle with  24 * 222 preons.  There are 40 rows shown in Table 6 but that is because the number of preons is double for each successive row.  There is no reason why there could not be 24*240/24 = 240 rows within Table 6.  And there is no reason to stop at index 40.  Two of the particle masses suggested experimentally by Dorigo (2013) appear, by my simple formulae, to correspond to the 3-higgs and 6-higgs which are between rows 31 and 33 in table 6.

Supersymmetry

 Preon Model 3b, and Table 6,  allow a better view of supersymmetry for heavy particles than in my previous models.  All particles in any row of Table 6 are potential superpartners.  Any dark matter particle in a row of Table 6 can have a boson and neutrino with identical preon content, but their properties will be different because of their different ways of pairing preons.

Heavy dark particles, ie particles at the bottom of Table 6 in the dark column such as the Z and Higgs, will behave as static particles (without linear speed c) as they have equal amounts of type (LR’) as of (L’R) pairings  which give an equal amount of left-handed and right-handed preons. With the higgs, for exaample, there will be 24*229 left-handed preons and 24*229 right-handed preons.  Their field effects cancel, on average, leaving a static field. That makes the higgs a dark matter particle. and the same for the Z particle.  But the higgs and the Z could have partner particles with identical preon content in a boson column (not shown in Table 6), and also in a neutrino column (also not shown).  A photon and neutrino near the top of such columns are massless with speed c, but if interference (between preons field effects) caused particles low down in the boson and neutrino columns to lose speed c and gain mass, then the Z and Higgs partners could exist with mass as bosons, rather than as dark matter particles.   This effect could give the particles in the lower neutrino column to have mass. This could give rise to some massless neutrinos and some massive neutrinos, depending on position in the column.  The muon neutrino might, for example, be speculated to be in row index 9 next to the muon while the tauon neutrino might be in row index 17 next to the tauon.

The W boson could be a mixture of an electron and a bosonic form of Z, rather than a mixture of an electron and a dark matter particle shown in table 6.

Although there is no news of statistically significant detection of supersymmetry from CERN,  there appears to me to be a simple single formula which can be used to calculate masses of dark matter particles in CERN data.  (ben6993, 2013.)   These may simply be dark matter particles or bosonic particles  rather than supersymmetric particles.  In Preon Model #3, supersymmetry is already evident as the photon and neutrino have the same preon content but have different structures and different properties because of the different ways that their preons are arranged. 

Summary

7.  Structures of families of elementary particles as combinations of preons are suggested in this paper.  Model #3 uses a modification of the Rishon preon model by elimination of the zero electric charge preon which has been replaced by two oppositely electrically charged preons.  It is suggested that the gluons have the same preon content as the higgs, that is 96 preons, but that the preon pairing arrangement of the gluons is for a boson [i.e. (LL’) and (RR’) pairs] whereas the higgs has an (LR’) and (L’R) pairing of an electron or quark or dark matter particle.  The gluon is suggested to be one particle in eight guises rather than eight different particles.  A massles version of a Z particle (with 48 preons) is suggested and the massive Z is suggested to have (LR’) and (L’R) pairings of preons, making it, and the higgs, a dark particle as it is neutral in charge.  A dark matter particle is suggested with a mass of 65.7 GeV/c2.  A table of interrelated masses of electron, quarks and dark matter particles is constructed shedding some light on the structures of these families of particles and which does not pair s with c nor b with t quarks.  The baryon octet has been used to imply a structure for the strange quark’s preon contents.

Experimental evidence for the mass of a dark particle in Table 2 would be desirable.  Also, the experimental hints  of masses of the n-higgs particles in Table 2 need confirmation.   A mathematical treatment of the speculations in this paper might possibly be developed using string theory as a first approach as the preons appear to be strings.

An extension of the model, to Model #3b, sets the massive Z and Higgs particles as much more massive aggregations of preons than in Model #3.  This allows a new range of lighter particles of dark matter.  One such particle has mass 9200 Mev/c2 and is the closest, in Table 6, to the recently suggested dark matter particle with mass 8600 Mev/c2.  It also puts a very big distance between the Z and the electron/up/down particles in terms of preon numbers.  In interactions involving large aggregations of preons, many preons are returnable covertly to the vacuum as dark matter particles plus lighter fermions.

Manchester

England

AJF/27May2013/v1

(revised/v3/31May2013)

 

 

References

ben6993, Dark matter WIMP mass of 65.7 GeV/c^2, (2013) http://wp.me/p18gTT-i

ben6993, Masses of N-Higgs-type particles, (2013)   http://wp.me/p18gTT-8

ben6993, Preon model #3, (2013)   https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/sci.physics.foundations/t4v45NeO6-k

(Date sequenced notes showing development of ideas in model #3, but including false leads.)

ben6993, The Structure of Elementary Particles: Preon Model #3,  (2013)  http://wp.me/p18gTT-n

Councilman, J. E., Competitive Swimming Manual for Coaches and Swimmers, (1977)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Counsilman

Dorigo, T.,  Guess the plot  (2013)  http://www.science20.com/quantum_diaries_survivor/blog/guess_plot_11-101336

Dorigo, T., New CMS Results On Dijet Resonances (2013)  http://www.science20.com/quantum_diaries_survivor/new_cms_results_dijet_resonances-104684

SuperCDMS Collaboration,  Dark Matter Search Results Using the Silicon Detectors of CDMS II , (2013) http://cdms.berkeley.edu/CDMSII_Si_DM_Results.pdf

Wired.co.uk,  Contradictory Higgs boson measurements emerge at the LHC, (2012)  http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-12/17/higgs-boson-contradictory-results

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